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Glossary

The following is a more comprehensive glossary of the range of eye conditions.

Accommodative Dysfunction An eye focusing problem that is unrelated to aging changes in the lens of the eye.
Amblyopia The loss or lack of development of clear vision in typically just one eye. It is commonly not due to eye health problems, but by one or both eyes having a higher than normal amount of farsightedness, nearsightedness, astigmatism, or poor eye-teaming (one eye turns in or out). This can be treated much more easily in school-aged children than in adults with eyeglasses, contacts and/or vision therapy.
Astigmatism A vision condition that causes blurred vision due either to the irregular shape of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye, or sometimes the curvature of the lens inside the eye.
Blepharitis An inflammation of the eyelids and eyelashes causing red, irritated, itchy eyelids and the formation of dandruff like scales on eyelashes.
Cataract A cloudy or opaque area in the normally clear lens of the eye.
Chalazion A slowly developing lump that forms due to blockage and swelling of an oil gland in the eyelid.
Color Vision Deficiency The inability to distinguish certain shades of colors or, in more severe cases, see colors at all.
Computer Vision Syndrome A group of eye and vision-related problems that result from prolonged desktop/laptop computer, tablet or cell phone use.
Conjunctivitis An inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, the thin transparent layer of tissue that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and covers the white part of the eye.
Convergence Insufficiency An eye coordination problem in which the eyes have a tendency to drift outward when reading or doing close work. This can cause vision-focus problems which oftentimes can cause mental-focus complications.
Corneal Abrasion A cut or scratch on the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye.
Corneal Ulcer A type of keratitis or corneal infection, oftentimes caused by bacteria. Poor contact lens wear, disposal and disinfection can increase risk for this condition.
Crossed Eyes A condition in which both eyes do not look at the same place at the same time. This oftentimes causes a decrease or lack of depth perception, and can cause one eye to develop amblyopia.
Diabetic Retinopathy A condition occurring in persons with diabetes, which causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye.
Dry Eye A condition in which there are insufficient tears to lubricate and nourish the eye. This can occur due to deficiency of watery tears produced, or due to evaporation of the watery tears.
Farsightedness A vision condition in which distant objects are usually seen clearly, but close objects do not come into proper focus.
Flashes & Floaters New floating spots in your vision with or without flashing lights or a veil over your side vision are a serious eye health concern. These symptoms can precede a retinal detachment or posterior vitreous detachment.
Floaters & Spots The shadowy images that are seen moving in your field of vision caused by particles floating in the fluid that fills the inside of the eye.
Glaucoma A group of disorders leading to progressive damage to the optic nerve, and is characterized by loss of nerve tissue resulting in loss of vision.
Hordeolum See Sty
Hyperopia See Farsightedness
Iritis An inflammation of one or more of the structures that make up the middle layer of the eye called the uvea. Also called anterior uveitis.
Keratitis An inflammation or infection of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye.
Keratoconus An eye disorder causing progressive thinning and bulging of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye.
Lazy Eye See Amblyopia
Learning-related Vision Problems Vision disorders that interfere with reading and learning. See also Convergence Insufficiency and Accommodative Dysfunction.
Macular Degeneration An eye disease affecting the macula, the center of the light sensitive retina at the back of the eye, causing loss of central vision.
Migraine with Aura See Ocular Migraine
Myopia See Nearsightedness
Nearsightedness A vision condition in which you can see close objects clearly, but objects farther away are blurred.
Nystagmus A vision condition in which the eyes make repetitive, uncontrolled movements, often resulting in reduced vision.
Ocular Allergies The abnormal response of sensitive eyes to contact with allergens and other irritating substances.
Ocular Hypertension An increase in the pressure inside the eye above the range considered normal, without any detectable changes in vision or damage to the structures of the eye.
Ocular Migraine A type of severe headache accompanied by various visual symptoms.
Pinquecula An abnormal growth of tissue on the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white of the eye.
Photophobia Commonly known as ‘light sensitivity’, this can be caused by migraine, iritis, or inflammation existing inside the eye.
Presbyopia An age-related vision condition in which there is a gradual loss of the eye’s ability to focus on near objects.
Pterygium An abnormal growth of tissue on the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white of the eye, and the adjacent cornea, the clear front surface of the eye.
Ptosis A drooping of the upper eyelid.
Retinal Detachment A tearing or separation of the retina, the light sensitive lining at the back of the eye, from the underlying tissue.
Retinitis Pigmentosa A group of inherited disorders of the retina, the light sensitive lining at the back of the eye, which cause poor night vision and a progressive loss of side vision.
Retinoblastoma A rare type of eye cancer occurring in young children that develops in the retina, the light sensitive lining at the back of the eye.
Strabismus See Crossed Eyes
Sty An infection of an oil gland in the eyelid.
Subconjunctival Hemorrhage An accumulation of blood underneath the conjunctiva, the clear membrane covering the white part of the eye.
Uveitis See Iritis